Visualizing Viral Mutation

This video is a beautiful visualization of how life finds a way to thrive in adverse circumstances. It provides some insight into what’s going on with the coronavirus as it mutates. The key point is that we think of vaccination as extinguishing a virus, when it’s really just one part of an endless back and forth tennis match. We’re continuously learning from each other and training each other. It never stops.

In the video, an E. coli culture has been placed at the ends of an enormous plate of agar. You can see some some stripes in it. Each stripe is more poisonous than the one before it. The bacterial colony starts in a happy zone with no poison. It grows quickly until it hits the first poison strip (antibiotic). It looks like it’s stalled out, but in a few locations, the bacteria figure out a way (they mutate) to defeat the effect of the poison, and you see another breakout. All the “children” who continue on are descended from the clever bacterium that cut the hole in the fence.

This process is repeated three more times. The progress of the colony is stymied… until somebody cuts through the next fence, and the relentless march continues. In other words, we may think we’re making a prison for bacteria, but it’s more useful to think of it as a training center for ninja commando bacteria!

The superimposed colored lines show branching trees of inheritance. The bacteria that reach the red “end zone” have had to adapt to life-threatening poison multiple times. Is their appearance in a sea of toxic sludge miraculous or inevitable? It’s hard to know ahead of time, but there they are. Life finds a way.

Here is the video. This is not a notional diagram or cartoon. You’re watching genuine evolution, the engine of life’s variety, happen before your eyes. There it is! If Darwin believed in heaven and was there right now, he’d be smiling at this. But I think he’s just dead. Anyway, press “play” already…

Here is a similar-looking tree diagram for the coronavirus, as maintained on As before, each branch represents a successful mutation. Maybe it was in response to some stress, or maybe it was just random. But from just a few virus particles on the left side comes a fantastic woolly forest of viral variation on the right. It never stops.

We now have the magic goggles that let us watch evolution like a spectator sport. Nextstrain even has this fascinating “market share” diagram. Some strains do better. Some do worse. The ones that do better get to make more copies. It’s as simple, and as complicated, as that.

And it never ever stops.